RETENTION KNOBS. J&M Machine Inc. says its high-torque retention knobs increase tool life while enabling users to hold tighter tolerances by allowing a toolholder to properly mate with the spindle. By not expanding the small end of the toolholder, the holder is able to properly seat in the spindle and make full contact. That reduces harmonic vibration and tool runout. The retention knobs are reportedly suitable for all holders built to industry specifications. (800) 322-7750.
J&M Machine Inc.
CERAMIC INSERTS. Greenleaf Corp.’s GSN100 ceramic insert grade is for machining cast iron. The grade is a blend of silicon nitride and toughening agents that extend tool life at cutting speeds up to 5,000 sfm when turning, grooving and milling, the company reports. Users can order GSN100 inserts with special geometries and application-specific edge preparations. (800) 458-1850.
TOOL PRESETTER. Koma Precision Inc. offers Elbo Controlli’s Khyan tool presetting machine. The presetter is equipped with a twin-screen digital camera system and industrial PC architecture. The interchangeable spindle uses a one-piece cartridge, eliminating the need for adapters and the errors associated with their use, the company reports. Users can import and export DXF CAD profiles for detailed checking and comparison on the camera system. (800) 249-KOMA.
Koma Precision Inc.
TURNING INSERTS. Walter USA LLC says its Valenite Tiger-tec Silver inserts boost productivity up to 75 percent when turning steel. A newly formulated Al2O3 coating and optimized microstructure resists plastic deformation and crater and flank wear. A silver flank face provides easier wear detection. The inserts are available in three grades (WPP10S, WPP20S and WPP30S) and four geometries (FP5 for facing and light cuts, MP3 for medium machining, MP5 for general machining and RP5 for roughing). (800) 945-5554.
Walter USA LLC
BELT SKIMMER. The Mighty Mini SST from Abanaki Corp. is a compact belt skimmer for part washers and machine tool coolant sumps. The stainless steel construction resists rust and corrosion in harsh environments. Its pull-out discharge trough is easy to clean and dual wipers enhance efficiency, according to the company. (440) 543-7400.
HORIZONTAL MACHINING CENTERS. Makino Inc.’s a51nx and a61nx (pictured) horizontal machining centers accommodate large parts. The a51nx has a 22.0" X-axis travel, a 25.2" travel for the Y and Z axes and a total axis volume of 8.1 cu. ft. The standard a61nx has travels of 28.7", 25.6" and 31.5" in the X, Y and Z axes, respectively. An optional tall column on the a61nx extends the Y-axis to 28.7". The maximum tool length is 16.9" on the a51nx and 20.1" on the a61nx. (800) 552-3288.
FIXTURING SYSTEM. The iLock fixturing system from Sandvik Coromant Co. securely clamps a solid-carbide endmill when machining ISO S materials, such as titanium. In some situations, axial forces pull a tool from its chuck despite the chuck’s high clamping force. To solve the problem, helical grooves are ground into the tool shank, and pin drivers mounted in the chuck prevent the tool from being pulled from the holder. This doesn’t increase tool runout, the company reports. (800) SANDVIK.
Sandvik Coromant Co.
GROOVING TOOLS. Thinbit modifies its Design-A-Groove tools according to a customer’s specific application requirements. The company’s application engineers provide design assistance, price quotations and follow-up technical support. Special configurations include face grooving geometry, full or corner radius, increased DOC, chamfering, chip control and top rakes. Special toolholders can be ordered. (888) 844-6248.
FLUID RECYCLING EQUIPMENT. Eriez says HydroFlow fluid recycling and filtration equipment enables end users to cut metalworking fluid purchases 40 to 80 percent. The equipment removes tramp oils and solids, extending coolant and tool life and reducing bacteria in fluids. According to the company, the equipment also maximizes coolant effectiveness and longevity to improve productivity and reduce disposal costs. Machine-side and central systems are available. (888) 300-ERIEZ.
BORING, GROOVING and THREADING TOOLS. Vargus USA’s Mini-V indexable carbide inserts and toolholders are for boring, grooving and threading diameters from 8mm to 16mm. One toolholder accepts a variety of TiCN-coated inserts. The toolholders have 16mm-dia. shanks from 80mm to 130mm long and are made of alloy steel or carbide with steel seating. An insert clamping system improves vibration resistance, according to the company. (800) 828-8765.
MULTIAXIS PROGRAMMING. CNC Software Inc. says its Mastercam Blade Expert add-on simplifies the toolpath creation process for multiple-bladed parts, including fans, impellers, propellers and turbines. It eliminates guesswork and minimizes the need for extra geometry creation. It also minimizes unnecessary motion at the machine, resulting in an efficient and gouge-free toolpath that imparts a fine surface finish. The add-on enables users to remove material from between blades and finish the blades, floors and fillets. (800) 228-2877.
CNC Software Inc.
CARBIDE SPECIALS. Tungsten Toolworks’ Web site enables users to design, quote and purchase custom carbide cutting tools to optimize machining efficiency for specific applications. Options include extended-reach necks, edge preparations and special coatings, such as TiB2 and diamond. The types of tools include microendmills, roughers, routers, drills, step drills and radius mills. (800) 854-2431.
BORING SYSTEM. BIG Kaiser Precision Tooling Inc.’s 319 SW twin-cutter boring system replaces 314 RW. By not introducing additional components or having to manually adjust insert height for different roughing methods, the 319 SW reduces setup time and eliminates the need for a presetter because of the fixed heights and diameter scale on the tool. Tool diameters range from 0.787" to 8.000" and the tools accept standard CC, SC and SP carbide inserts. (888) TOOL-PRO.
BIG Kaiser Precision Tooling Inc.
ABRASIVE NYLON BRUSHES. Brush Research Manufacturing Co. Inc.’s NamPower composite hub-wheel brushes are abrasive nylon brushing tools for deburring, surface finishing and edge radiusing. The brushes have indestructible cores, high filament density and balanced construction, the company reports. The flexible nylon filaments are set in a thermoplastic base and uniformly filled with silicon-carbide abrasive. The brushes are available in 6" and 8" diameters and have a 2" arbor hole. (323) 261-2193.
Brush Research Manufacturing Co. Inc.
SUMP CLEANER. The 60-gal. Sump Shark from Cecor Inc. is for cleaning machine tool sumps in shops with limited space. The portable unit’s vertical design allows it to access tight spots and maneuver through crowded aisles and around corners. Fork pockets allow forklift transport. The air-operated venturi provides a pumping rate of 70 gpm. Two-way pumping enables a user to pump coolant back to the machine tool or transport it to a central recycling system after emptying the sump. (800) 356-9042.
SHOULDER MILL. Mitsubishi Materials USA Corp.’s VOX shoulder mill is for machining cast iron and ductile iron. The tangentially mounted inserts create a strong cutting edge, the company reports. The fracture-resistant, grade-MC5020 inserts provide eight right-hand corners. Cutter diameters range from 2" to 10". Standard and fine-pitch teeth configurations are available. (800) 523-0800.
Mitsubishi Materials USA Corp.
THREADING TOOLS. Komet of America Inc. added Bass machine taps and roll form taps to its line of threading tools. The tools are available in inch and metric sizes and made of HSS-E and HSS-E P/M. The taps reduce the cost per thread, maximize part quality and optimize the threading process, according to the company. (847) 923-8400.
Komet of America Inc.
GANTRY LASER MARKING. Technifor’s latest laser marking product is the TFG20 gantry enclosure. The unit’s 12"×24"×6" table with X- and Y-axis numeric reference simplifies large-batch marking, according to the company. The 20w fiber laser marks a range of materials, including anodized ones. The company’s T8000 software is specific for gantry marking and compatible with most Windows operating systems. (704) 525-5230.
MILLING CUTTERS. Single Source Technologies offers Pokolm Voha’s Slotworx milling cutters for roughing and finishing steel, aluminum, graphite, plastics and hardened materials. Tools are available for endmilling, facemilling, groove milling, pocketing and shoulder milling. The endmills have helical cutting edges with positive rake angles to provide continuous stability, enable easy cutting and impart fine surface finishes, according to the company. (877) 228-2884.
Single Source Technologies
COMPRESSION ROUTERS. AMAMCO Tool offers compression routers for cutting various materials, including composites for aerospace applications. To eliminate delamination, the routers have advanced geometries for compression cutting action. A CVD diamond coating is grown on the carbide substrate to create a long-lasting surface. In a test for cutting distance, the company reports that its tool outperformed the nearest competitor by 55 percent. (800) 833-2239.
VERTICAL MACHINING CENTER. Okuma America Corp.’s GENOS M460-VE vertical machining center has a double-column structure to minimize floor space. The travels are 30", 18.11" and 18.11" in the X, Y and Z axes, respectively. The rapid-traverse rate is 1,574 ipm. The CNC machine comes standard with a 40-taper, 12,000-rpm spindle; 30/25-hp, variable-AC, liquid-cooled integral motor; and 32-position automatic toolchanger. (704) 588-7000.
Okuma America Corp.
TURNING INSERTS. Kennametal Inc. says its new Beyond insert grades boost productivity when turning difficult-to-machine alloys, such as titanium. Grade KCU10 is for OD and ID turning, grooving, plunging, undercutting and threading. Grade KCU25 is for threading, grooving, cutoff and selected additional turning applications. Both grades are PVD coated and receive a special surface treatment to improve performance when machining high-temperature superalloys. (724) 539-5000.
THREADING TOOLS. J.M. Sales-USA (formerly JBO-USA) has added HSS-E and P/M application-specific taps from Hahnreiter Prazision to its product line. The company also supplies JBO thread mills, threading dies, thread gages and thread rolling tools. (248) 879-5984.
DEBURRING TOOLS. E-Z Burr’s small-hole carbide series tools deburr the front and back of a hole in a single pass and deburr hole diameters as small as 0.125". Standard carbide tools from 0.125" to 2.0" and HSS tools from 0.040" to 2.0" are available. (800) 783-2877.
DEEP-HOLE DRILLS. Mikron Corp. Monroe offers CrazyDrill tools from 1mm in diameter for drilling 15, 20 and 30 diameters deep and from 2mm in diameter for drilling 40 diameters deep. The drills’ new cutting geometry produces short chips when cutting steel, enabling efficient evacuation, the company reports. The through-coolant drills reach full depth in a single stroke without pecking, allowing higher speeds and feeds. (203) 261-3100.
Mikron Corp. Monroe
THREADING INSERTS. Carmex Precision Tools LLC’s BLU-grade thread turning inserts combine submicrograin carbide with three layers of PVD coating. The strong, long-lasting tools create accurate threads and impart a fine surface finish even when cutting difficult-to-machine materials, according to the company. (888) 628-5030.
Carmex Precision Tools LLC
GRINDING WHEELS. Abrasive Technology uses its patented VFlex technology to consistently produce one-piece resin-bond diamond and CBN grinding wheels up to 12" wide. This ability increases wheel life up to 30 percent, reduces grinding cost per part compared to standard wheels, enables higher stock-removal rates and increases DOC, the company reports. Wheels are available up to 24" in diameter. (800) 964-8324.
CARBIDE ENDMILLS. Monster Tool Co.’s HPNF carbide endmills are primarily for machining aluminum but are also suitable for other nonferrous materials. The endmills have a 45° helix angle to rapidly evacuate chips and a flute geometry that not only increases the chip load per tooth by 33 percent, but also improves workpiece finish and tool versatility, according to the company. The tools are available with two or three flutes and feature radii for extra edge strength. (888) 227-2433.
Monster Tool Co.
HIGH-FEED CUTTER. Mil-Tec says its high-feed cutter, tooled with standard Freedom inserts, achieves maximum efficiency. The positive cutting geometry of the ground and polished inserts enables high metal-removal rates and reduces power consumption. The cutter is available in shank and shell mill configurations and is reportedly ideal for use in medium-duty, 40-taper CNC machines. (800) 564-5832.
HORIZONTAL MACHINING CENTER. Doosan Infracore Machine Tools’ NHM5000 HMC accepts workpieces up to 33.5"×43.3". The machine’s one-piece casting provides a rigid base for the table and column, and the bed is made of fine-grain Meehanite to dampen vibration and dissipate heat. A 25-hp, two-geared motor powers the 6,000-rpm spindle. A refrigerated cooling system maintains a constant spindle temperature, regardless of ambient temperature or cutting conditions. (973) 618-2500.
Doosan Infracore Machine Tools
AUTOMATION CELL. Methods Machine Tools Inc.’s JobShop Cell combines a Fanuc RoboDrill VMC and a Fanuc 6-axis robot for automated workpiece loading/unloading. The machine enables drilling, tapping and milling and processes virtually any part that fits in its 6" vise or chuck. The cell comes with inbound and outbound conveyors and guarding. The work-handling interface accommodates hydraulic and pneumatic workholders. (978) 443-5388.
Methods Machine Tools Inc.
TOOL VENDING MACHINES. Fastenal’s FAST CT vending machines provide 24/7 point-of-use access to individual round tools and inserts and produce detailed usage reports. The company provides the machines and restocks them, eliminating capital expense, paperwork and labor for the end user. Multiple machines can be located throughout a shop for enhanced productivity. (877) 265-8247.
MILLING AND BORING CENTER. DMG/Mori Seiki USA Inc.’s Milltap 700 is a vertical milling and boring center and represents Mori Seiki’s first joint development with DMG. The machine, which has a compact footprint, enhances efficiency because of its high speed and rapid tool changes, the company reports. (855) 364-6674.
DMG/Mori Seiki USA Inc.
WHEEL TRUING AND DRESSING. Rush Machinery Inc.’s Model FC-250W machine is for truing and dressing flats, angles and radii on diamond and CBN grinding wheels, including single wheels and multiple wheel packs. The machine’s heavy-duty, one-piece cast iron base enhances rigidity and minimizes vibration, the company reports. The ExVision computer-driven vision system and software, an automatic power zoom and a 2-axis DRO for measurement are standard. (800) 929-3070.
Rush Machinery Inc.
MICROGEOMETRY MEASUREMENT. Zoller Inc. has integrated a new microsensor with its >>genius 3<< inspection machine. The measurement system can be positioned via CNC over five axes, enabling touch-free measurement of tool geometries and scanning of different surfaces and work materials with exceptional precision and reproducibility, according to the company. (734) 332-4851.
Related Glossary Terms
Substance used for grinding, honing, lapping, superfinishing and polishing. Examples include garnet, emery, corundum, silicon carbide, cubic boron nitride and diamond in various grit sizes.
Substances having metallic properties and being composed of two or more chemical elements of which at least one is a metal.
Shaft used for rotary support in machining applications. In grinding, the spindle for mounting the wheel; in milling and other cutting operations, the shaft for mounting the cutter.
- automatic toolchanger
Mechanism typically included in a machining center that, on the appropriate command, removes one cutting tool from the spindle nose and replaces it with another. The changer restores the used tool to the magazine and selects and withdraws the next desired tool from the storage magazine. The changer is controlled by a set of prerecorded/predetermined instructions associated with the part(s) to be produced.
Enlarging a hole that already has been drilled or cored. Generally, it is an operation of truing the previously drilled hole with a single-point, lathe-type tool. Boring is essentially internal turning, in that usually a single-point cutting tool forms the internal shape. Some tools are available with two cutting edges to balance cutting forces.
Generic term for a curve whose shape is controlled by a combination of its control points and knots (parameter values). The placement of the control points is controlled by an application-specific combination of order, tangency constraints and curvature requirements. See NURBS, nonuniform rational B-splines.
Stringy portions of material formed on workpiece edges during machining. Often sharp. Can be removed with hand files, abrasive wheels or belts, wire wheels, abrasive-fiber brushes, waterjet equipment or other methods.
Cone-shaped pins that support a workpiece by one or two ends during machining. The centers fit into holes drilled in the workpiece ends. Centers that turn with the workpiece are called “live” centers; those that do not are called “dead” centers.
Machining a bevel on a workpiece or tool; improves a tool’s entrance into the cut.
- chemical vapor deposition ( CVD)
chemical vapor deposition ( CVD)
High-temperature (1,000° C or higher), atmosphere-controlled process in which a chemical reaction is induced for the purpose of depositing a coating 2µm to 12µm thick on a tool’s surface. See coated tools; PVD, physical vapor deposition.
Workholding device that affixes to a mill, lathe or drill-press spindle. It holds a tool or workpiece by one end, allowing it to be rotated. May also be fitted to the machine table to hold a workpiece. Two or more adjustable jaws actually hold the tool or part. May be actuated manually, pneumatically, hydraulically or electrically. See collet.
Materials composed of different elements, with one element normally embedded in another, held together by a compatible binder.
- computer numerical control ( CNC)
computer numerical control ( CNC)
Microprocessor-based controller dedicated to a machine tool that permits the creation or modification of parts. Programmed numerical control activates the machine’s servos and spindle drives and controls the various machining operations. See DNC, direct numerical control; NC, numerical control.
- computer-aided design ( CAD)
computer-aided design ( CAD)
Product-design functions performed with the help of computers and special software.
Fluid that reduces temperature buildup at the tool/workpiece interface during machining. Normally takes the form of a liquid such as soluble or chemical mixtures (semisynthetic, synthetic) but can be pressurized air or other gas. Because of water’s ability to absorb great quantities of heat, it is widely used as a coolant and vehicle for various cutting compounds, with the water-to-compound ratio varying with the machining task. See cutting fluid; semisynthetic cutting fluid; soluble-oil cutting fluid; synthetic cutting fluid.
- cubic boron nitride ( CBN)
cubic boron nitride ( CBN)
Crystal manufactured from boron nitride under high pressure and temperature. Used to cut hard-to-machine ferrous and nickel-base materials up to 70 HRC. Second hardest material after diamond. See superabrasive tools.
Step that prepares a slug, blank or other workpiece for machining or other processing by separating it from the original stock. Performed on lathes, chucking machines, automatic screw machines and other turning machines. Also performed on milling machines, machining centers with slitting saws and sawing machines with cold (circular) saws, hacksaws, bandsaws or abrasive cutoff saws. See saw, sawing machine; turning.
Removal of undesirable materials from “loaded” grinding wheels using a single- or multi-point diamond or other tool. The process also exposes unused, sharp abrasive points. See loading; truing.
Milling cutter held by its shank that cuts on its periphery and, if so configured, on its free end. Takes a variety of shapes (single- and double-end, roughing, ballnose and cup-end) and sizes (stub, medium, long and extra-long). Also comes with differing numbers of flutes.
Operation in which the cutter is mounted on the machine’s spindle rather than on an arbor. Commonly associated with facing operations on a milling machine.
Form of milling that produces a flat surface generally at right angles to the rotating axis of a cutter having teeth or inserts both on its periphery and on its end face.
- flank wear
Reduction in clearance on the tool’s flank caused by contact with the workpiece. Ultimately causes tool failure.
Grooves and spaces in the body of a tool that permit chip removal from, and cutting-fluid application to, the point of cut.
- gang cutting ( milling)
gang cutting ( milling)
Machining with several cutters mounted on a single arbor, generally for simultaneous cutting.
Machining operation in which material is removed from the workpiece by a powered abrasive wheel, stone, belt, paste, sheet, compound, slurry, etc. Takes various forms: surface grinding (creates flat and/or squared surfaces); cylindrical grinding (for external cylindrical and tapered shapes, fillets, undercuts, etc.); centerless grinding; chamfering; thread and form grinding; tool and cutter grinding; offhand grinding; lapping and polishing (grinding with extremely fine grits to create ultrasmooth surfaces); honing; and disc grinding.
Machining grooves and shallow channels. Example: grooving ball-bearing raceways. Typically performed by tools that are capable of light cuts at high feed rates. Imparts high-quality finish.
- helix angle
Angle that the tool’s leading edge makes with the plane of its centerline.
- high-speed steels ( HSS)
high-speed steels ( HSS)
Available in two major types: tungsten high-speed steels (designated by letter T having tungsten as the principal alloying element) and molybdenum high-speed steels (designated by letter M having molybdenum as the principal alloying element). The type T high-speed steels containing cobalt have higher wear resistance and greater red (hot) hardness, withstanding cutting temperature up to 1,100º F (590º C). The type T steels are used to fabricate metalcutting tools (milling cutters, drills, reamers and taps), woodworking tools, various types of punches and dies, ball and roller bearings. The type M steels are used for cutting tools and various types of dies.
- inches per minute ( ipm)
inches per minute ( ipm)
Value that refers to how far the workpiece or cutter advances linearly in 1 minute, defined as: ipm = ipt 5 number of effective teeth 5 rpm. Also known as the table feed or machine feed.
- inner diameter ( ID)
inner diameter ( ID)
Dimension that defines the inside diameter of a cavity or hole. See OD, outer diameter.
- machining center
CNC machine tool capable of drilling, reaming, tapping, milling and boring. Normally comes with an automatic toolchanger. See automatic toolchanger.
Any manufacturing process in which metal is processed or machined such that the workpiece is given a new shape. Broadly defined, the term includes processes such as design and layout, heat-treating, material handling and inspection.
Structure of a metal as revealed by microscopic examination of the etched surface of a polished specimen.
Machining operation in which metal or other material is removed by applying power to a rotating cutter. In vertical milling, the cutting tool is mounted vertically on the spindle. In horizontal milling, the cutting tool is mounted horizontally, either directly on the spindle or on an arbor. Horizontal milling is further broken down into conventional milling, where the cutter rotates opposite the direction of feed, or “up” into the workpiece; and climb milling, where the cutter rotates in the direction of feed, or “down” into the workpiece. Milling operations include plane or surface milling, endmilling, facemilling, angle milling, form milling and profiling.
- milling machine ( mill)
milling machine ( mill)
Runs endmills and arbor-mounted milling cutters. Features include a head with a spindle that drives the cutters; a column, knee and table that provide motion in the three Cartesian axes; and a base that supports the components and houses the cutting-fluid pump and reservoir. The work is mounted on the table and fed into the rotating cutter or endmill to accomplish the milling steps; vertical milling machines also feed endmills into the work by means of a spindle-mounted quill. Models range from small manual machines to big bed-type and duplex mills. All take one of three basic forms: vertical, horizontal or convertible horizontal/vertical. Vertical machines may be knee-type (the table is mounted on a knee that can be elevated) or bed-type (the table is securely supported and only moves horizontally). In general, horizontal machines are bigger and more powerful, while vertical machines are lighter but more versatile and easier to set up and operate.
- outer diameter ( OD)
outer diameter ( OD)
Dimension that defines the exterior diameter of a cylindrical or round part. See ID, inner diameter.
- physical vapor deposition ( PVD)
physical vapor deposition ( PVD)
Tool-coating process performed at low temperature (500° C), compared to chemical vapor deposition (1,000° C). Employs electric field to generate necessary heat for depositing coating on a tool’s surface. See CVD, chemical vapor deposition.
- plastic deformation
Permanent (inelastic) distortion of metals under applied stresses that strain the material beyond its elastic limit.
Angle of inclination between the face of the cutting tool and the workpiece. If the face of the tool lies in a plane through the axis of the workpiece, the tool is said to have a neutral, or zero, rake. If the inclination of the tool face makes the cutting edge more acute than when the rake angle is zero, the rake is positive. If the inclination of the tool face makes the cutting edge less acute or more blunt than when the rake angle is zero, the rake is negative.
Main body of a tool; the portion of a drill or similar end-held tool that fits into a collet, chuck or similar mounting device.
Tough, difficult-to-machine alloys; includes Hastelloy, Inconel and Monel. Many are nickel-base metals.
Machining operation in which a tap, with teeth on its periphery, cuts internal threads in a predrilled hole having a smaller diameter than the tap diameter. Threads are formed by a combined rotary and axial-relative motion between tap and workpiece. See tap.
- thread rolling
Chipless, cold-forming material-displacement process where a rolling head is pressed into the workpiece to create threads. The material is stressed beyond its yield point, which causes it to be deformed platically and permanently. There are three basic types of rolling heads: axial, radial and tangential.
Process of both external (e.g., thread milling) and internal (e.g., tapping, thread milling) cutting, turning and rolling of threads into particular material. Standardized specifications are available to determine the desired results of the threading process. Numerous thread-series designations are written for specific applications. Threading often is performed on a lathe. Specifications such as thread height are critical in determining the strength of the threads. The material used is taken into consideration in determining the expected results of any particular application for that threaded piece. In external threading, a calculated depth is required as well as a particular angle to the cut. To perform internal threading, the exact diameter to bore the hole is critical before threading. The threads are distinguished from one another by the amount of tolerance and/or allowance that is specified. See turning.
Carriage or drum attached to a machining center that holds tools until needed; when a tool is needed, the toolchanger inserts the tool into the machine spindle. See automatic toolchanger.
Secures a cutting tool during a machining operation. Basic types include block, cartridge, chuck, collet, fixed, modular, quick-change and rotating.
- toolpath( cutter path)
toolpath( cutter path)
2-D or 3-D path generated by program code or a CAM system and followed by tool when machining a part.
Using a diamond or other dressing tool to ensure that a grinding wheel is round and concentric and will not vibrate at required speeds. Weights also are used to balance the wheel. Also performed to impart a contour to the wheel’s face. See dressing.
Workpiece is held in a chuck, mounted on a face plate or secured between centers and rotated while a cutting tool, normally a single-point tool, is fed into it along its periphery or across its end or face. Takes the form of straight turning (cutting along the periphery of the workpiece); taper turning (creating a taper); step turning (turning different-size diameters on the same work); chamfering (beveling an edge or shoulder); facing (cutting on an end); turning threads (usually external but can be internal); roughing (high-volume metal removal); and finishing (final light cuts). Performed on lathes, turning centers, chucking machines, automatic screw machines and similar machines.
- vision system
System in which information is extracted from visual sensors to allow machines to react to changes in the manufacturing process.
On a rotating tool, the portion of the tool body that joins the lands. Web is thicker at the shank end, relative to the point end, providing maximum torsional strength.