Plastically deforming metal above room temperature but below the temperature at which the material undergoes recrystallization.
Fine, high-pressure (up to 50,000 psi or greater), high-velocity jet of water directed by a small nozzle to cut material. Velocity of the stream can exceed twice the speed of sound. Nozzle opening ranges from between 0.004" to 0.016" (0.l0mm to 0.41mm), producing a very narrow kerf. See AWJ, abrasive waterjet.
The more widely spaced component of the surface texture. Includes all irregularities spaced more widely than the instrument cutoff setting. See flows; lay; roughness.
Frame elements that carry the workpiece table or spindles. There are three main types of ways: box, roller and hydrostatic. A box way is the oldest and simplest. It has high stiffness, good damping characteristics, a large surface contact area, and resistance to high cutting and shock load. A roller way consists of a rail and a slide, but has a rolling-element bearing between the two. A roller way has a lighter weight and operates with less friction than a box way, so it can be positioned faster and with less energy. With a hydrostatic way, the slide moves on a pressurized film of oil. Friction is almost zero, minimizing stick-slip and wear.
Ability of the tool to withstand stresses that cause it to wear during cutting; an attribute linked to alloy composition, base material, thermal conditions, type of tooling and operation and other variables.
On a rotating tool, the portion of the tool body that joins the lands. Web is thicker at the shank end, relative to the point end, providing maximum torsional strength.
Metal plate inside the grinding-wheel hole that allows the wheel to be mounted on a spindle.
Used to ensure that a grinding wheel is balanced before mounting it on the machine.
white cast iron
Cast iron that shows a white fracture. The material is free from graphite carbon because of its chemical composition.
width of cut
Width of the milled surface, reflecting a face milling cutter’s radial engagement, and a peripheral milling cutter’s axial engagement, in the cut.
Metal-removing edge on the face of a cutter that travels in a plane perpendicular to the axis. It is the edge that sweeps the machined surface. The flat should be as wide as the feed per revolution of the cutter. This allows any given insert to wipe the entire workpiece surface and impart a fine surface finish at a high feed rate.
Process similar to ram electrical-discharge machining except a small-diameter copper or brass wire is used as a traveling electrode. Usually used in conjunction with a CNC and only works when a part is to be cut completely through. A common analogy is wire electrical-discharge machining is like an ultraprecise, electrical, contour-sawing operation.
Milling cutter used for cutting keyways.
Cube, sphere, cylinder or other physical space within which the cutting tool is capable of reaching.
Mounts to the table of a contour band machine and automatically squares the work to the blade.
Tendency of all metals to become harder when they are machined or subjected to other stresses and strains. This trait is particularly pronounced in soft, low-carbon steel or alloys containing nickel and manganese—nonmagnetic stainless steel, high-manganese steel and the superalloys Inconel and Monel.