Hand-feeding a workpiece into a bench grinder. Usually utilized in the shop to resharpen tools. Attachments or other mechanical devices are required for increased efficiency and accuracy. See grinding.
orthogonal chip formation
Concentrated shear action at the point of cut that results in the formation of a continuous chip. See shear plane.
outer diameter (OD)
Dimension that defines the exterior diameter of a cylindrical or round part. See ID, inner diameter.
Deviation from nominal path caused by momentum carried over from previous step, as when a tool is rapidly traversed a considerable distance to begin a cut. Usually applies to CNC machining and is prevented if the control has the appropriate look-ahead capability. See look-ahead; undershoot.